IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation)
Everyone desires to have a baby that makes their home happy, but many couples worldwide are unable to conceive due to a growing number of reasons. For this, solutions have been discovered by the best IVF doctors in India and around the world.
IVF is one such treatment for couples who cannot conceive naturally. In IVF, egg and sperm are fertilized outside the body. The doctors fertilize more than one embryo and monitor the fertilized egg for a few days. After monitoring, an embryo that is genetically healthiest of all other is implanted in a women’s uterus for a successful pregnancy. The success rates depend on the number of previous cycles, causes of infertility, and the woman’s age. If the eggs or sperm cannot be retrieved from the couple or the quality is not up to mark, eggs or sperm of someone else are used by a fertility specialist, keeping all information confidential.
Who needs IVF treatment?
The couples with the below-listed problems need to go for the IVF procedure.
- Damaging or blocked fallopian tube
- Ovulation disorder (No eggs in the ovary)
- Uterine fibroids
- Sterilization or removal of previous tubes
- Impaired functioning of sperm or low sperm count
- Unknown infertility problem
- Infertility problem due to health issues or genetic disorder
The complex process of IVF
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The process begins with the use of the latest technologies associated with IVF. The method of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation retrieves multiple eggs. Eggs are directly retrieved from the ovary under ultrasound guidance from the transvaginal route. Once the eggs are retrieved, they are fertilized with the sperm, and then an embryo is formed. The healthiest embryo is selected and is transferred back into the uterus of the female.
Maturation and egg retrieval
When the size of 2-3 ovarian follicles reaches 16-18 mm, ovulation is performed by an HCG injection, which is called a trigger shot. After 34-36 hours of injecting HCG, egg retrieval is done just before the follicles would rupture. After that, eggs are received by the transvaginal path and fused with sperm. Once the healthy embryos are formed, these are transferred into the uterus.
Preparation of egg and sperm
Eggs with good chances of a successful pregnancy are chosen by oocyte selection and then stripped off in the laboratory to prepare for fertilization.
At the same time, semen is also prepared for fertilization by the process of sperm washing. In this process, seminal fluid and dormant cells are removed from the semen, and washed semen is used for infertility treatment.
The sperm and egg are kept in culture media for about 18 hours. As soon as the egg fertilize, it will show two pronuclei.
The embryo reaches 6 to 8 cells in nearly 3 days, and till then, it is kept cultured under the supervision of the best IVF specialist in Delhi. However, embryo culture is extended to 5 days blastocyst state if good quality embryos are available on the third day.
Embryo selection and transfer
A morphological scoring system is done to judge the quality of oocyte and embryo. The number of embryos that could be transferred depends on the woman’s age, her medical status, and the number of embryos available. A thin plastic catheter is used at an IVF center in Delhi to transfer the embryo through the vagina and cervix into the uterine cavity. More than one healthy embryos are transferred to raise the chances of pregnancy.
- Damage to surrounding, bleeding or infection can occur during egg retrieval
- Transferring more than one embryo can lead to multiple pregnancies
- Ectopic pregnancy can occur if an egg develops outside the uterus, like in the fallopian tube
Success rate – chances of successful conception
IVF treatment success rate depends on many factors, including age, health status, quality of eggs, and sperm.