IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation) - Ray of hope


Everyone has a desire to have a baby that make their home happier but a large number of couples worldwide are unable to conceive due to plenty of reasons. For this, a number of solutions have been discovered by the best IVF doctors in India and around the world.

IVF is one such treatment in which if couples are unable to conceive naturally, egg and sperm are fertilised outside the body. The doctors fertilize more than one embryo and monitor the fertilized egg for few days. After monitoring, an embryo that is genetically healthiest of all other is implanted in the uterus of women for a successful pregnancy. The success rates depend on the number of previous cycles, causes of infertility, and age of the woman. If the eggs or sperm cannot be retrieved from the couple or the quality is not up to mark, eggs or sperm of someone else are used by a fertility specialist, keeping all information confidential.

Who needs IVF treatment?

The couples with the below-listed problems need to go for the IVF procedure.

  • Damaging or blocking of the fallopian tube
  • Ovulation disorder (No eggs in the ovary)
  • Endometriosis
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Sterilization or removal of previous tubes
  • Impaired functioning of sperm or low sperm count
  • Unknown infertility problem
  • Infertility problem due to health issues or genetic disorder

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The complex process of IVF treatment that brings uncountable happiness

The process begins with the use of latest technologies associated with IVF. Multiple eggs are retrieved by the process of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Eggs are directly retrieved from ovary under ultrasound guidance from the transvaginal route. Once the eggs are retrieved they are fertilized with the sperm and then an embryo is formed. The healthiest embryo is selected and is transferred back into the uterus of the female.

Maturation and egg retrieval

When the size of 2-3 ovarian follicles reaches 16-18 mm, ovulation is performed by an HCG injection which is called trigger shot. After 34-36 hours of injecting HCG, egg retrieval is done just before the follicles would rupture. After that eggs are received by the transvaginal path and fused with sperm. Once the healthy embryos are formed, these are transferred into the uterus.

Preparation of egg and sperm

Eggs with good chances of successful pregnancy are chosen by oocyte selection and then stripped off in the laboratory to prepare for fertilisation.

At the same time semen is also prepared for fertilisation by the process of sperm washing. In this process, seminal fluid and inactive cells are removed from the semen and washed semen is used for infertility treatment.

Fertilisation

The sperm and egg are kept in culture media for about 18 hours. As soon as the egg will be fertilised it will show two pronuclei.

Embryo culture

The embryo reaches 6 to 8 cells in nearly 3 days and till then it is kept cultured under the supervision of a best IVF specialist in Delhi. However, embryo culture is extended to 5 days blastocyst state if good quality embryos are available on the third day.

Embryo selection and transfer

A morphological scoring system is done to judge the quality of oocyte and embryo. The number of embryos that could be transferred depending on the age of the woman, her medical status, and a number of embryos available. A thin plastic catheter is used at IVF centre in Delhi to transfer the embryo through vagina and cervix into the uterine cavity. More than one healthy embryos are transferred to raise the chances of pregnancy.

Complications

  • Damage to surrounding, bleeding or infection can occur during egg retrieval
  • Transferring more than one embryo can lead to multiple pregnancies
  • Ectopic pregnancy can occur if an egg develops outside the uterus, like in the fallopian tube

Success rate - chances of successful conception

IVF treatment success rate depends on many factors including age, health status, quality of eggs and sperm.

Blastocyst

If there are still healthy embryos available at the time of embryo transfer on the third day, it can be kept until the 5th day for blastocyst transfer. However, the embryo could not be kept after 5th day because it needs to be in the uterus of the mother on day 6.

Advantages of blastocyst

  • Only good quality reach this stage thus it is a good way to ensure the quality of the embryo
  • It is good for the ones with repeated implantation failures
  • Genetic test or screening can be done for this procedure

Disadvantages of blastocyst

  • If the number of embryos is less, there are chances that no embryo will be formed and no transfer will occur then
  • If the blastocyst splits, there are high chances of completely identical twins

Who are advised to go for blastocyst?

  • The women who have faced multiple pregnancy failures, either naturally or with IVF treatment
  • Women whose normal pregnancy age have been passed and have a lower ovarian reserve must go for the blastocyst treatment to conceive.
  • Women who have a family history of multiple births and have high chances of multiple births should go for this treatment because less number of embryos are transferred than IVF procedure.